In the past decade, with the help of technological advances and decreased cost, computer-aided surgery and patient-specific surgery have found wide use areas in the domain of orthopedics. Computer-aided surgery is defined as the use of computers and related other technologies such as fast prototyping, additive manufacturing, computer vision and robotics for either planning orthopedics surgeries and/or performing these surgeries. The relevant systems under this technology are computer-aided surgical planning, patient-specific surgical guides, computerized navigational systems and robotic systems. Today these computer-aided systems are being used to treat trauma and fractures, malunion and deformity, spinal disease, orthopedic tumor cases and arthroplasty surgeries. In this manuscript, we aim to explicate the conceptual workflow of computer-aided surgical planning and patient-specific surgical guides at the primary level as well as their examples of usage in the field of Orthopaedics.