Although neurological and vascular injuries around the shoulder are not very common, overlooked and undiagnosed cases can cause very serious clinical results and medico-legal problems. In addition, the treatment of such neurological injuries is challenging and is a long period for both the patients and the surgeons. They often occur after motor vehicle accidents, gunshot wounds, in sports involving overhead throwing activities. Mechanisms of nerve damage include ischemia from direct pressure, repetitive microtrauma, compression, or stretch. After injuries of the axillary, musculocutaneous, suprascapular, long thoracic nerves, as well as the supraclavicular and infraclavicular brachial plexus, prominent clinical syndromes may occur around the shoulder. In the absence of bone, soft tissue, or vascular injury, nerve injury should be suspected when a patient complains of pain, weakness, or paresthesia. Surgical treatment is indicated in the presence of vascular injury or in cases of severe pain and muscle paralysis after high-energy trauma. In most cases without open trauma, nerve healing is followed for 3-5 months. Surgical treatment is indicated when there is no evidence of improvement in clinical or nerve conduction studies. This article discusses the management of common nerve injuries around the shoulder and the clinical outcome after surgical treatment.