Patellofemoral pain syndrome is a common disorder that has an impact on many aspects of daily life. It is caused by imbalances in the forces controlling patellar tracking during knee flexion and extension, particularly with overloading of the joint. Risk factors include overuse, trauma, muscle dysfunction, tight lateral restraints, patellar hypermobility, and poor quadriceps flexibility. Typical symptoms include pain behind or around the patella that is increased with running and activities that involve knee flexion. Findings in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome range from limited patellar mobility to a hypermobile patella. The possibly multifactorial etiology of patellofemoral pain syndrome is partially unknown and a wide range of conservative and surgical procedures has been used to treat patients. However, there are no consensus recovery protocols for patients experiencing patellofemoral pain syndrome. The purpose of our review is to examine recent literature regarding the efficacy of various treatment modalities in the management of patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome.