Treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) includes rehabilitation, observation, bracing and surgical treatment according to age, curvature size and deformity progression. While spinal fusion is still the gold standard surgical treatment method for AIS, the search for non-fusion strategies has increased in the early 21st century. These methods brought the problems of choosing the proper indication and appropriate patient cohort in progressive AIS cases that are difficult to analyze. Anterior scoliosis surgery starting in the 1970s, gained momentum again in the early 2000s due to the promising results of non-fusion methods after the biomechanical, animal, and subsequent human studies, and anterior growth modulation techniques have become the most frequently used non-fusion treatment method in the AIS group. Further research and development studies are needed for the reliable and widespread use of these methods, the future results of which are not yet clear.