Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients can be successfully treated with today`s surgical procedures, with gradually decreasing complication rates. However, it should not be forgotten that the complications can cause very serious problems. Therefore, the patient and their parents should be informed about the potential benefits and harms at the decision stage for surgery, and the surgical treatment decision should be taken together. The most feared situation for both the patient and the surgeon is the possibility of death or neurological sequelae due to surgery. In addition, respiratory system complications, gastrointestinal complications, surgical site infections, implant-related complications and neurological deficits are more common among complications that develop due to AIS surgery. Many different complications in any process start from the patient being placed on the operating table for surgery and continue until years later. For this reason, it may be beneficial for our clinical practices to deal with complications in a chronological systematic as intraoperative and postoperative periods. A successful AIS surgery is only possible if the complications that may be encountered are well known, the necessary precautions are taken to prevent their occurrence, and appropriate management can be made. This review aimed to evaluate the complications of AIS surgery in the light of current literature.