Surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis has progressed rapidly in the few decades since the advent of segmental pedicle screw instrumentation. The development of robotic-assisted surgery, modern navigation systems, and growth-modulating non-fusion surgical techniques has recently accelerated this progress. These various techniques and technologies emerging in the surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis have shown promising results in the data reported so far. However, longer-term prospective studies with larger cohorts are needed to better evaluate their safety and efficacy. The aim of this study is to review the techniques and innovations that have emerged in the recent years in the surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.