Relative indications in cases of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) for surgical treatment are >45-50° and curvature that accelerate rapidly. While settling upon the surgical curation; the overall balance of the spine, eliminating deformities and the stabilization of the spine is set as the main goal. Today, the most common techniques for the surgical treatment of AIS are based on the stabilization of the spine with posterior segmental pedicle screw and bar and, the adjusting of the spine with the adaptation of proper curation practices. Factors such as the position of the vertebra that lacks fusion, the number of mobile segments, the coronal and sagittal balance, the dynamic of the upper level of fusion and the segments that lack fusion and the tendency for degenerative disc syndrome play a significant part in long term results. By re-providing, the standard coronal and sagittal order, protecting and improving the mobility and spinal function is intended. Goals regarding mobility enhancing surgical treatments; the increase of research concerning genetics, biological, and solutions referring to functional factors could present new opportunities and treatments in the future.