For accurate diagnosis of shoulder and elbow injuries in athletes it should begin with a comprehensive medical history and additional physical examination, if necessary assisted with further diagnostic tools. The shoulder is the joint which has the greatest range of movement in our body. Several joints must act in a coordination to obtain correct shoulder joint motion. The risk of injury increases when the major muscle groups around the shoulder are not activated on time and adequately, especially for the overhead sports such as volleyball, handball and tennis. Shoulder and elbow rehabilitation starts with an accurate diagnosis and requires a correct analysis of the situation that caused the injury. Sports rehabilitation is a unique process and should be finalized with a specific programme in order to ensure return to play. Contrary to multiple standardized functional tests for the evaluation of lower extremity injuries, there are only a few tests present for the assessment of shoulder and elbow injuries. The process of return to play during rehabilitation of shoulder and elbow injuries is the most overlooked and is typically cut short making it prone to serious re-injuries and chronic disabilities. The gains that must be achieved in each phase of the rehabilitation must be determined clearly to reduce re-injuries. The ultimate aim of the rehabilitation is to achieve a full and pain-free range of motion, return to play with previous muscle strength and minimalizng the risk of injury as well. The decision of the return to play is always as a result of teamwork.