Recent technological developments in virtual reality and augmented reality have made it possible to use these solutions in orthopedics and traumatology applications. Virtual reality enables surgeons to practice operational techniques and enhance procedural skills. Virtual reality technologies have been extensively researched and utilized in various areas of medical research, including pain management, rehabilitation, and traumatic brain injury, as well as in clinical applications. On the other hand, augmented reality systems offer solutions where the virtual environment is superimposed onto the real environment without detaching the users from their surroundings. Recent studies presenting clinical AR applications in orthopedic surgery have been categorized in areas such as spine, osteotomy, arthroplasty, trauma, and oncology. The purposes of this review are to define virtual and augmented reality, summarize the areas of application of these technologies in orthopedics and traumatology, and provide current examples.