Transient osteoporosis is defined as primary osteoporosis which is characterized by self-limiting bone marrow edema. Although several culprists have been proposed for its underlying etiology, the exact pathogenesis still remains obscure. Affected patients suffer from pain with weight-bearing without a history of trauma. The diagnosis is based on the characteristic history, physical examination and typical findings of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Conventional radiographs reveal normal findings in the early stages of the disease. The sensitivity of computed tomography is lower. The diagnostic tool of choice for early diagnosis is MRI. The T1 weighted, T2 weighted and short time inversion recovery (STIR) images reveal typical changes in bone marrow. Nuclear scintigraphy can show an intense increase in uptake in all phases, however it is nonspecific. The mainstay of the treatment is partial weight-bearing. Mild analgesics and non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs may relieve pain.