Other than commonly seen gram (+), gram (–) and tuberculosis infections, non-tuberculosis mycobacterial infections; bacterial infections like brucellosis, typhoid fever and syphilis; fungal infections like coccidioidomycosis, blastomycosis, histoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, sporotricosis and echinococcosis are also seen although they are rare infections of the musculoskeletal system. With the advancements in the diagnostic methods the rate of these infections is currently increasing. Among these, nearly 91 types of nontuberculosis mycobacterial species have been described and it was demonstrated that at least 15 different types of these microorganisms can cause musculoskeletal infections. Brucellosis has six subtypes and four of these are known to cause disease in humans. Brucella melitensis is a bacteria seen in goats and is responsible for the most of the Brucella infections seen worldwide. Brucellosis is especially prevalent in Eastern and South-eastern Anatolian regions in our country and mostly seen in people involved in animal husbandry. Since the transmission of typhoid fever primarily occurs via oro-faecal route, the disease is quite rarely seen in the developed countries. Anaerobes are the dominant component of the normal skin and mucosal membrane bacterial flora and consequently are a common cause of endogenous bacterial infections. Fungal osteomyelitis is usually develops slowlyand therefore there may be some delays in the diagnosis and treatment. Since the diagnosis depends on specific staining and culture results, it is important to start treatment on suspicion before a definitive diagnosis is established.