For more than a century, bone grafts have been used to facilitate and maintain bone union, fill cavities and add structural integrity to bone. Autografts have osteoconductive, osteoinductive and osteogenic properties, which make them the most ideal choice. However, their use is not appropriate in every situation because of limited availability and donor bed morbidity. Allografts, which are widely used, were introduced to overcome these shortcomings. Obtained from humans, they are actually bone and are biologically handled like autografts in the body. Bone banking is the process of donor selection, graft preparation and preservation and transportation under strict guidelines. These guidelines help to minimize disadvantages and complications of allografts. Bone banks can be international trading companies or local institutions based in hospitals. As the current graft demand largely depends on graft importation, the establishment of a National Bone Bank may decrease this dependancy.