Health care of detainees and convicts is a complex situation involving medical, financial and security issues. It is qualitatively and quantitatively different from general population. It was reported that 65–81% of detainees and convicts suffer from one or more health problems. A reasonable time should be allocated to examination of detainees and convicts, and examination notes and treatment decision should be carefully noted in his personal health file, which is also processed in the `UYAP` (National Judicial Network Project) system. If patient is recalled for the control examination or an interventional procedure is planned, date have to be clearly written in personal health file. In a study which was conducted in our country, the reasons for the application of detainees and convicts to emergency were investigated and it was reported that 15.6% of them were due to sports injuries, and it was the most common reason for referring to emergency department. Social and physical conditions of penitentiaries should be a part of decision for treatment decision of detainees and convicts. It should be noted that patients in penitentiaries have to take care of themselves (lack of caregivers) and that there are difficulties in providing appropriate physical conditions (such as absence of proper toilet facilities). Especially detainees and convicts who suffer from lower extremity problems should be treated most appropriately for immediate mobilization. Surveillance studies to be carried out in penitentiaries can ensure that existing infrastructure and manpower are guided correctly, and that more effective and efficient health service is provided.