Musculoskeletal infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality and treatment is difficult. Risk factors of musculoskeletal infection development need to be addressed in order to prevent infection. These risk factors can be classified as patient related factors (malnutrition, diabetes, obesity, conditions that results in immunocompromisation), microorganism related factors (resistant bacteria, capacity to produce biofilm) and perioperative period risk factors (prolonged surgery and inappropriate surgical technique, inappropriate surgical antibiotic prophylaxis and surgical team failures). Prevention has gained importance related to the difficulty of treatment after an established infection. Therefore, in preoperative period, patient related risk factors should be modified; cleaning of surgical field before surgery should be completed and risk factors related with surgical personnel should be prevented. During operative time, its important to make sure that atraumatic surgery has been performed, operating theater conditions have been optimized and surgical instruments have been properly sterilized. In postoperative setting, proper wound care is essential. Antibiotic prophylaxis is planned according to possible etiologic agents and should not be given beyond 24 hours.