Chronic pain is a disorder characterized by complex interactions between biological, psychological and sociocultural factors. Due to multidimensional nature of chronic back and neck pain, efficacious assessment, and treatment requires a comprehensive, multiaxial approach. It`s important to present the cause of pain by using laboratory and imaging methods when necessary, following detailed questioning and examination. Standard evaluation methods should be used to reveal potential social, emotional, cognitive, environmental and behavioral factors, besides biomedical approach to detect organic pathologies. In this article, we aimed to emphasize the main components in evaluation of patients with chronic back and neck pain.