Neck pain is one of the most common musculoskeletal problems and is second most commonly seen after low back pain. Its annual prevalence is around 30%. Thirty percent of neck aches that start acutely become chronic, increasing treatment costs and leading to loss of work power. The cervical vertebrae are prone to degenerative processes and trauma due to the complex structure and high mobility. The main causes of chronic neck pain are myofascial pain and poor posture-derived mechanical pain, axial neck pain, cervical radiculopathy and spondylotic myelopathy. Assessment should start with physical examination and include palpation, measurement of range of motion of joints, performing of special cervical tests and a detailed neurological examination. A detailed and careful physical examination will facilitate optimal choice of examination materials and treatment methods. Therefore, physical examination plays a key role in improving general health and avoiding loss of time and work power.