Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy or hyperoxygenation is a treatment method which may be defined as applying 100% oxygen in a high-pressure environment to treat a medical case. The modern clinical practice of HBO therapy has begun and developed parallel to the increased understanding of physiology of blood gas analysis and gas exchange. There are two basic physiological effects of HBO therapy on the human body: the first is the mechanical effect on the gases in the body and the other is the enhancing of partial oxygen pressure. Nowadays, with a better under-standing of the effects of HBO therapy, it can be used in orthopedics and traumatology as an effective treatment method with common indications in pathologies such as diabetic injuries, problematic injuries, necrotizing soft tissue infections, chronic osteomyelitis, problematic skin flaps and grafts, some acute ischemic conditions, and gas gangrene. On the other hand, there is a need for higher evidence of treatment efficacy in spite of positive reports on HBO treatment outcome in pathologies such as sports injuries, closed soft tissue injuries, fracture healing, osteone-crosis, spinal cord injuries, peripheral nerve injuries.