Since 1991, extracorporeal shock wave therapy has been increasingly used in the treatment of musculoskeletal problems in orthopedics and traumatology. It is mostly used in cases such as plantar fasciitis, lateral epicondylitis, shoulder calcinosis and non-calcification tendinopathy, Achilles tendinopathy and patellar tendinopathy, avascular necrosis of the femur head, osteoporosis (local increase in bone density), loose uncemented prostheses. Shock wave therapy is cheaper, more effective and easier to use than surgical treatment. Shock wave therapy is a new treatment option with shorter turnaround time and fewer adverse effects. In many diseases, it should be considered as an effective treatment option before surgical treatment.