Adipose tissue has rich cell source for using in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Adipose tissue is a multifunctional organ containing mature adipocytes and stromal vascular fraction (SVF). SVF is termed as a heterogeneous cell population that can be derived from adipose tissue by various methods. SVF includes preadipocytes, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), pericytes, endothelial cells and macrophages. But it is especially rich in adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC). ADSC is an alternative to bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) because it can be easily isolated. It is known that these adipose tissue-derived stromal/stem cells are used in the treatment of various diseases because of many clinical advantages. These cells can be seeded on tissue scaffolds and used for repair of damaged tissue as in hard tissue (bone and cartilage defects) or soft tissue defects (scars and burns). The ability of SVF to stimulate angiogenic, immunoregulatory, differentiation triggering and extracellular production also increases the efficiency of regeneration and repair mechanisms. In this article, especially in the musculoskeletal diseases, the use of SVF and strategies for treatment will be discussed.