Although proximal humerus fractures are commonly seen in elderly and osteoporotic patients, they may present in young patients due to high-energy trauma. In particular, studies conducted in the last three decades have led to increased understanding of morphology and vascularity of proximal humerus fractures, thereby resulting in the development of staging system and eventually increased foresight for the prognosis of the disease. The introduction of anatomical locking plates based on AO principles of fracture management has resulted in early union of proximal humerus fractures and early mobilization. In addition to conventional methods, many surgical and fixation techniques including screw fixation, suture fixation, tension band, intramedullary screwing, plate osteosynthesis and arthroplasty can be used, depending on the type of the fracture. Minimally invasive surgical techniques and minimally invasive osteosynthesis, a biological fixation method, offer a high success rate with lower morbidity rate, avoiding interruption of the blood supply to the fracture zone.