Venous thromboembolism is one of the most important complications that may develop after orthopedic surgery. Pharmacological and mechanical prophylaxes are applied to prevent this complication. Guidelines have been developed in many countries and regions around the world to minimize the risk of venous thromboembolism, which is organized according to the patients` medical conditions, surgical alternatives and prophylaxis options. Current and widely accepted guidelines are the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP), the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons (AAOS) and the National Institutes of Health and Care Excellence (NICE). In the current study, recommendations of AAOS, ACCP and NICE guidelines were presented.