Low back pain is the most common type of back pain in children and adolescent. It has a wide range of prevalence (9–66%) in pediatric age group, while most recent studies show a higher prevalence with respect to older studies, due to utilization of better methodology and newer definition low back pain. The prevalence depends on the age and the level of activity of the patients. There are evidences showing that the prevalence of back pain in older children and adolescents are much higher than younger. The complaint of childhood low back pain should be assessed with a thorough history, a careful physical examination, and by imaging devices and laboratory tests, if necessary.