Neuropathic osteoarthropathy is first described by French neurologist Jean-Martin Charcot and called as Charcot neuroarthropathy. It is a progressive disease that causes deformities in bones and joints of the patient with sensory neuropathy. Diabetes mellitus is the most common etiology but other conditions like infections, chronic alcohol consumption or syringomyelia also has been associated with Charcot neuroarthropathy.
In the early stages of the disease patients complain from deformities and swelling in their feet. With the advancement of the disease; erythema and pain will be added to the clinical picture. This can lead to misdiagnosis and inappropriate early treatment. If left untreated, deformity progresses and typical rocker-bottom foot develops. After the acute phase comes coalescence, and it is followed by the consolidation phase.
The goal in the treatment of Charcot neuroarthropathy is to achieve a plantigrade, stabile foot protected from recurrent ulcerations, and can fit in a shoe. The first step of treatment is off-loading, and total contact casting is accepted as golden standard for this procedure. Exostectomy, Achilles lengthening and arthrodesis are the surgical treatment modalities that can be utilized.