Common peroneal nerve entrapment at the fibular head is the most common mononeuropathy at the lower limb. The anatomic reasons for vulnerability to injuries of peroneal nerve are the direct contact to the fibular head, shifting compartments from narrow fibroosseous tunnels, and superficial trace around knee. Nevertheless, there is propensity to nerve entrapment in individuals who is performing kneeling and squatting during sportive and occupational activities. Although drop foot is the most significant symptom, most of the patients suffer due to uncertain pain and sensation problems. Underlying etiology of the nerve entrapment is the most important determinant for treatment modality. The purpose of this review is discuss the pathoanatomy, etiology, clinical findings, diagnostic tools and treatment modalities of the peroneal nerve entrapment.