Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a surgical treatment that is frequently used in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. In order to obtain the most appropriate results after TKA and to prevent possible complications, a detailed and sensitive history and physical examination process should be followed, and a meticulous preparation process should be applied. Since TKA is applied to elderly patients, common diseases and drugs in the relevant age group should be known and necessary precautions should be taken against them. In cases where complications are expected, the specialists of the relevant branches should be consulted. Appropriate imaging modalities should be selected and evaluated precisely when making a TKA decision. The most appropriate type of arthroplasty for the patient`s knee joint should be selected and prepared before surgery. Expectations from surgery and the steps to be taken in the postoperative period should be explained to the patients in detail. The most appropriate anaesthesia method for the patient should be decided together with the anaesthesiologist. Necessary precautions should be taken to prevent possible complications in pre-surgical preparation. Appropriate antibiotic therapy and the dose should be selected for the patient in terms of infection prophylaxis. Preparation of the extremity before surgery should be done with precision and necessary steps should be taken to avoid possible infection.