Cartilage damage, one of the most common joint diseases, occurs due to many factors. The ability of the articular cartilage to self-repair in case of any damage is limited because it lacks blood vessels, nerves and lymphatic vessels and does not get enough nutrients. Damaged cartilage tissue causes intense pain due to this poor healing capacity, and osteoarthritis (OA) may develop over time. Tissue engineering is a new approach that can biologically mimic real tissue by using cells, biodegradable materials and growth factors individually or in combination, improving the regeneration process. However, the most important issue is the problems of scaffold-cartilage integration. Recently, many attempts have been made to overcome this challenge through the manipulation of cellular content, material, and biomolecular composition. Therefore, this review focuses on not only current treatment strategies, but also cell-scaffold structures and interactions, cellular therapies, mesenchymal stem cells and biomaterials, as well as positive aspects and remaining problems that will guide future research.