Peripheral nerve injuries are common condition among the disorders related to the nervous system in orthopedics and traumatology daily practice. Despite developing microsurgical techniques, complete recovery of sensory and motor functions is not always achieved. In parallel with the developments in the field of bioengineering, experimental and pre-clinical studies about biological accelerators draw attention. Nerve conduits, neurotrophic factors, Schwann cells, stem cells and platelet-rich plasma are the most used biological accelerators. In order to understand the pathway of biological accelerators, it is necessary to know the cellular basis of nerve healing process. Although the nerve healing enhancing effects of the mentioned methods have been experimentally proven, the number of clinical studies is insufficient. It is foreseen that in the future, new substances will be added to the biological accelerator options described under this topic and the number of clinical studies will increase.