Bone and joint infections continue to be serious conditions for the orthopedic surgeons. The low blood supply to these tissues and the use of implants increase the risk for infection. Infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in orthopedic surgery. The most common symptom is pain localized to the site of infection. The characteristic features of infection, namely redness and swelling, may not be seen in many patients. Many studies have shown the efficacy of prophylactic antibiotics in reducing infection rates after orthopedic procedures. The definitive diagnosis of an infection is done by either examination of the collected samples under direct microscopy or isolation of bacteria from cultures. Bone changes will not be present on plain roentgenograms until the infection is established, ie. for 1-2 weeks after the infection started. Soft tissue swelling is the earliest radiographic change. Due to the unique physiological and anatomical characteristics of bone and joint, it is much easier to prevent the infection than to treat it. Knowing the patient-and surgeon-related factors is important in preventing infection. Patient`s nutritional and immunological status is important in the development of infection. Good operating room conditions, cleaning and covering the surgical area and appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis is essential in the prevention of infection.