Acute hematogenous osteomyelitis is a progressive bone infection caused by microorganisms. It is typically seen in childhood age group. The most common cause of acute hematogenous osteomyelitis is bacteria. Among all age groups, Staphylococcus aureus is the most frequently isolated pathogen. Acute hematogenous osteomyelitis has the tendency to involve the methaphysis of the long bones in children. The femur is most frequently involved bone, whereas vertebral involvement is common in adults. Laboratory tests and radiological assessment is important in the diagnosis, but a detailed history and physical examination carry a higher importance in the diagnosis of acute hematogenous osteomyelitis. The success of the treatment in acute hematogenous osteomyelitis depends on early diagnosing and starting the treatment as soon as possible. Antibiotic treatment should be administered to all patients that are diagnosed with acute hematogenous osteomyelitis. For the patients without abscess formation, cure can be provided with antibiotic treatment alone. Surgical treatment is reserved for the patients who have abscess formation or who do not respond to the antibiotic treatment. If abscess formation is present, drainage should be performed and all dead tissues removed by surgical treatment since antibiotics are ineffective for abscesses and dead tissues. In patients who have been treated inadequately or who have not received treatment at all, progression to chronic osteomyelitis is frequently seen.