Competition is one of the many ways of social interaction. The struggle among people and organizations having the same purpose is defined as competition. It is a struggle to reach a better outcome. It may have a productive effect, but at times it may be disruptive; so there are two types: positive and negative competition. Indeed, solidarity and collaboration should be the dominant behaviours instead of negative competition. As in every medical branch, general conditions and unique individual factors play role in orthopedics and traumatology. In general, competition may be divided into three areas: professional, academic and economic. To a certain degree, the first two may be related to the last one. The negative role of official regulations and unique conditions of private health organizations in professional and economic competition should be emphasized. Besides positive effects of academic competition, unfair competitive conditions and infringement of publishing ethics are well-known problems to be solved. Unethical interphysician, physician-patient, physician- industry relations, overtreatment, and violation of advertisement regulations are the serious problems ahead of us.