Primary bone tumors are uncommon, and when they occur, are usually benign. Both benign and malignant bone tumors are seen more commonly in children and young adults. Physicians should be aware of the clinical and radiological manifestations of musculoskeletal tumors in order to provide timely specialist referrals. Imaging studies of the bony lesion should be evaluated, carefully following the history and physical examination. Plain radiographs give the most detailed information about skeletal lesions and it is frequently possible to differentiate a benign bone tumor from a bone sarcoma by radiographic evaluation. A biopsy is the final step in diagnosis and should be done by the surgeon who will perform the definitive procedure. Early detection of a malignant bone tumor may make the difference not only between life and death but also between saving or amputating a limb.